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YouTube - 臭氧層破洞 紫外線長驅直入
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 由 wenn 推薦於 2011-04-25 20:18


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How much do women love nonstick? some healthy cookware The sales figures tell the story: cookware In 2006, pots and pans with this special coating juicy chicken breast within a min (Teflon is the best-known version) constituted 90 percent of all aluminum cookware cookware sold, according to industry numbers. Yet despite nonstick's advantages use nonstisck cookware (its surface makes cleanup easy and also allows cooks to use less oil and butter), cookware it has come under fire in recent years over concerns reason of using it about toxic chemical emissions cookware . Dozens of reports and studies — from both industry and outside sources cookware — have turned up conflicting conclusions cookware . So we talked to numerous experts cookware, looked at the major studies — and also conducted our own lab tests at the Good Housekeeping Research Institute — to find out: cookware Just how safe are nonstick pots and pans cookware cookware ?
The answer is a qualified one cookware . They're safe, says Robert L. Wolke, Ph.D., a professor emeritus of chemistry at the University of Pittsburgh cookware and the author of What Einstein Told His Cook: cookware Kitchen Science Explained, cookware as long as they're not overheated cookware. When they are, the coating may begin to break down cookware (at the molecular level, so you wouldn't necessarily see it), and toxic particles and gases, some of them carcinogenic, can be released. cookware
"There's a whole chemistry set cookware of compounds that will come off when cookware Teflon is heated high enough to decompose," says Wolke cookware . "Many of these are fluorine-containing compounds, cookware which as a class are generally toxic cookware ." But fluoropolymers, the chemicals from which these toxic compounds come, cookware are a big part of the coating formula cookware — and the very reason that foods don't stick to nonstick. cookware
If the danger begins when pans overheat, cookware then how hot is too hot? cookware "At temperatures above 500ºF, the breakdown begins and smaller chemical fragments are released," cookware explains Kurunthachalam Kannan, Ph.D., an environmental toxicologist at the New York State Department of Health's Wadsworth Center. cookware DuPont, inventor and manufacturer of Teflon, cookware agrees that 500 degrees is the recommended maximum for cooking. cookware
Sticking Point
cookware How fast will a nonstick pan reach 500°F, cookware the point at which its coating can start to decompose? cookware The Good Housekeeping cookware Research Institute put cookware three pieces of nonstick cookware to the test: cookware a cheap, lightweight pan (weighing just 1 lb., 3 oz.); cookware a mid-weight pan (2 lbs., 1 oz.); cookware and a high-end, heavier pan cookware (2 lbs., 9 oz.). We cooked five dishes at different temperatures cookware on a burner that's typical in most homes. The results: cookware Even we were surprised by how quickly some of the pans got way too hot.
Outdated Fears
If cookware is flaking, cookware you might accidentally swallow a chip cookware — but don't stainless steel be concerned, says Paul Honigfort, cookware Ph.D., a consumer safety officer cookware with the Food and Drug Administration. cookware "A small particle would most likely just pass cookware through the body, without being absorbed and without having any ill effect on the person's health," cookware he says.
Also of less concern than cookware previously believed: the danger of nonstick pans cookware exposing the family to PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid). A chemical used to manufacture the fluoropolymers cookware that make up nonstick cookware's coating, PFOA is associated with tumors and developmental problems in animals, and experts are concerned about cookware its possible effects on humans. In 2004, DuPont agreed to cookware pay up to $343 million to settle a lawsuit alleging that PFOA, cookware used in the manufacture of Teflon at a certain plant, had contaminated drinking water nearby. cookware This year, cookware a study at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School cookware of Public cookware Health found an association between cookware PFOA exposure and small decreases in head circumference and body weight in infants cookware (except those born by cesarean section). cookware Last year, an independent review panel advised the EPA cookware to classify PFOA a "likely " human carcinogen. cookware The EPA has not yet adopted the recommendation, cookware which is disputed by DuPont. cookware In the meantime, the EPA has reached an agreement cookware with eight companies, including here DuPont, to phase out the use of PFOA completely by 2015.
But while PFOA is still a concern, it's unlikely that we get most of our exposure ceramic cookware from the use of nonstick pans. cookware Sources of PFOA are everywhere: in microwave-popcorn bags, fast-food packaging, cookware shampoo, carpeting, and clothing. cookware Studies show that most of us have PFOA in our bloodstreams, cookwareand babies show trace amounts at birth. nonstick The FDA has tested nonstick pans to evaluate the danger of PFOA exposure to humans. cookware "What we found was that the manufacturing process click here used to make those pans drives off the PFOA," cookware says Honigfort, meaning that the chemical evaporates. cookware "The risk to consumers is considered negligible."
Cook-Smart Precautions
You can use nonstick safely, cookware as long as you use it properly. cookware Any food that cooks quickly cookware on low or medium heat and coats most of the pan's surface cookware (which brings down the pan's temperature) cookware is unlikely to cause problems; that includes foods like scrambled eggs, cookware pancakes, or warmed-up leftovers. cookware And many other kinds of cooking are safe as well: cookware In GHRI's tests, cookware the only food prep that yielded a nonstick pan temperature exceedingcookware 600ºF in less than 10 minutes was steak in a lightweight pan. cookware But to be cautious, keep these tips in mind.
Never preheat an empty pan. In GHRI's tests, each of the three empty nonstick pans we heated
cookware
1. on high reached temperatures above 500 degrees in less than five minutes — and the cheapest, most lightweight pan got there in under two minutes. cookware Even pans with oil in them can be problematic; our cheapest pan zoomed to more than 500 degrees in two and a half minutes. cookware
2. Don't cook on high heat. cookware Most nonstick manufacturers, including DuPont, now advise consumers not to go above medium. cookware (DuPont maintains, however, that Teflon does not pose any health risks, and that its guideline is cookware simply meant to maximize the life of the product.) cookware
Do people still cook on high, despite manufacturers' instructions? cookware There's no statistical answer to that question," says the FDA's Honigfort. cookware But you know if you're doing it, and if you are, the consensus is clear: It would be safer if you stopped. cookware (Since some people won't switch to medium, or will overheat accidentally if distracted, says Jane Houlihan, vice president for research at the Environmental cookware Working cookware Group, "we recommend that people simply phase out the use of nonstick pans.") cookware To play it safe, set your knob to medium or low and don't place your nonstick cookware cookware over so-called power burners (anything above 12,000 BTUs on a gas stove or 2,400 watts on an electric range); cookware those burners, seen more often in recent years, are intended for tasks like boiling a large pot of water quickly.
3. Ventilate your kitchen. When cooking, cookware turn on the exhaust fan to help clear away any fumes.
4. Don't broil or sear meats. Those techniques require temperatures above what nonstick can usually handle.
5. Choose a heavier nonstick pan. exercise Lightweight pans generally heat up fastest, so invest in heavier-weight cookware — it's worth the extra money.
6. Avoid chipping or damaging the pan. fitness journal We've all been told not to lab use metal utensils on nonstick pans. Newer products may be harder weighted vast to chip, "because the adhesion between the pan and the nonstick coating is better," says Honigfort. Still, if pans do chip or flake, they may be more likely to click here release click here toxic compounds, says Kannan of the New York State click here Department of Health. weight vast To prevent scratching, use wooden spoons to stir food, avoid steel wool, for fitness and don't stack these pans. click here (If you do, put a paper towel liner between them.)

How long can click here you expect your click here nonstick cookware to last? click here DuPont's estimate, based on moderate usage, click here is three to five years. click here Some experts, like Kannan, click here advise replacing click here your nonstick cookware click here every couple of years. click here What should you do if the pan does become damaged? click here A clear answer, from Kannan: click here Throw it out.

Salman 迴響於 2017-12-24 22:43 回覆

Re: Food

Nervous About Nonstick?

How much do women love nonstick? some healthy cookware The sales figures tell the story: cookware In 2006, pots and pans with this special coating juicy chicken breast within a min (Teflon is the best-known version) constituted 90 percent of all aluminum cookware cookware sold, according to industry numbers. Yet despite nonstick's advantages use nonstisck cookware (its surface makes cleanup easy and also allows cooks to use less oil and butter), cookware it has come under fire in recent years over concerns reason of using it about toxic chemical emissions cookware . Dozens of reports and studies — from both industry and outside sources cookware — have turned up conflicting conclusions cookware . So we talked to numerous experts cookware, looked at the major studies — and also conducted our own lab tests at the Good Housekeeping Research Institute — to find out: cookware Just how safe are nonstick pots and pans cookware cookware ?
The answer is a qualified one cookware . They're safe, says Robert L. Wolke, Ph.D., a professor emeritus of chemistry at the University of Pittsburgh cookware and the author of What Einstein Told His Cook: cookware Kitchen Science Explained, cookware as long as they're not overheated cookware. When they are, the coating may begin to break down cookware (at the molecular level, so you wouldn't necessarily see it), and toxic particles and gases, some of them carcinogenic, can be released. cookware
"There's a whole chemistry set cookware of compounds that will come off when cookware Teflon is heated high enough to decompose," says Wolke cookware . "Many of these are fluorine-containing compounds, cookware which as a class are generally toxic cookware ." But fluoropolymers, the chemicals from which these toxic compounds come, cookware are a big part of the coating formula cookware — and the very reason that foods don't stick to nonstick. cookware
If the danger begins when pans overheat, cookware then how hot is too hot? cookware "At temperatures above 500ºF, the breakdown begins and smaller chemical fragments are released," cookware explains Kurunthachalam Kannan, Ph.D., an environmental toxicologist at the New York State Department of Health's Wadsworth Center. cookware DuPont, inventor and manufacturer of Teflon, cookware agrees that 500 degrees is the recommended maximum for cooking. cookware
Sticking Point
cookware How fast will a nonstick pan reach 500°F, cookware the point at which its coating can start to decompose? cookware The Good Housekeeping cookware Research Institute put cookware three pieces of nonstick cookware to the test: cookware a cheap, lightweight pan (weighing just 1 lb., 3 oz.); cookware a mid-weight pan (2 lbs., 1 oz.); cookware and a high-end, heavier pan cookware (2 lbs., 9 oz.). We cooked five dishes at different temperatures cookware on a burner that's typical in most homes. The results: cookware Even we were surprised by how quickly some of the pans got way too hot.
Outdated Fears
If cookware is flaking, cookware you might accidentally swallow a chip cookware — but don't stainless steel be concerned, says Paul Honigfort, cookware Ph.D., a consumer safety officer cookware with the Food and Drug Administration. cookware "A small particle would most likely just pass cookware through the body, without being absorbed and without having any ill effect on the person's health," cookware he says.
Also of less concern than cookware previously believed: the danger of nonstick pans cookware exposing the family to PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid). A chemical used to manufacture the fluoropolymers cookware that make up nonstick cookware's coating, PFOA is associated with tumors and developmental problems in animals, and experts are concerned about cookware its possible effects on humans. In 2004, DuPont agreed to cookware pay up to $343 million to settle a lawsuit alleging that PFOA, cookware used in the manufacture of Teflon at a certain plant, had contaminated drinking water nearby. cookware This year, cookware a study at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School cookware of Public cookware Health found an association between cookware PFOA exposure and small decreases in head circumference and body weight in infants cookware (except those born by cesarean section). cookware Last year, an independent review panel advised the EPA cookware to classify PFOA a "likely " human carcinogen. cookware The EPA has not yet adopted the recommendation, cookware which is disputed by DuPont. cookware In the meantime, the EPA has reached an agreement cookware with eight companies, including here DuPont, to phase out the use of PFOA completely by 2015.
But while PFOA is still a concern, it's unlikely that we get most of our exposure ceramic cookware from the use of nonstick pans. cookware Sources of PFOA are everywhere: in microwave-popcorn bags, fast-food packaging, cookware shampoo, carpeting, and clothing. cookware Studies show that most of us have PFOA in our bloodstreams, cookwareand babies show trace amounts at birth. nonstick The FDA has tested nonstick pans to evaluate the danger of PFOA exposure to humans. cookware "What we found was that the manufacturing process click here used to make those pans drives off the PFOA," cookware says Honigfort, meaning that the chemical evaporates. cookware "The risk to consumers is considered negligible."
Cook-Smart Precautions
You can use nonstick safely, cookware as long as you use it properly. cookware Any food that cooks quickly cookware on low or medium heat and coats most of the pan's surface cookware (which brings down the pan's temperature) cookware is unlikely to cause problems; that includes foods like scrambled eggs, cookware pancakes, or warmed-up leftovers. cookware And many other kinds of cooking are safe as well: cookware In GHRI's tests, cookware the only food prep that yielded a nonstick pan temperature exceedingcookware 600ºF in less than 10 minutes was steak in a lightweight pan. cookware But to be cautious, keep these tips in mind.
Never preheat an empty pan. In GHRI's tests, each of the three empty nonstick pans we heated
cookware
1. on high reached temperatures above 500 degrees in less than five minutes — and the cheapest, most lightweight pan got there in under two minutes. cookware Even pans with oil in them can be problematic; our cheapest pan zoomed to more than 500 degrees in two and a half minutes. cookware
2. Don't cook on high heat. cookware Most nonstick manufacturers, including DuPont, now advise consumers not to go above medium. cookware (DuPont maintains, however, that Teflon does not pose any health risks, and that its guideline is cookware simply meant to maximize the life of the product.) cookware
Do people still cook on high, despite manufacturers' instructions? cookware There's no statistical answer to that question," says the FDA's Honigfort. cookware But you know if you're doing it, and if you are, the consensus is clear: It would be safer if you stopped. cookware (Since some people won't switch to medium, or will overheat accidentally if distracted, says Jane Houlihan, vice president for research at the Environmental cookware Working cookware Group, "we recommend that people simply phase out the use of nonstick pans.") cookware To play it safe, set your knob to medium or low and don't place your nonstick cookware cookware over so-called power burners (anything above 12,000 BTUs on a gas stove or 2,400 watts on an electric range); cookware those burners, seen more often in recent years, are intended for tasks like boiling a large pot of water quickly.
3. Ventilate your kitchen. When cooking, cookware turn on the exhaust fan to help clear away any fumes.
4. Don't broil or sear meats. Those techniques require temperatures above what nonstick can usually handle.
5. Choose a heavier nonstick pan. exercise Lightweight pans generally heat up fastest, so invest in heavier-weight cookware — it's worth the extra money.
6. Avoid chipping or damaging the pan. fitness journal We've all been told not to lab use metal utensils on nonstick pans. Newer products may be harder weighted vast to chip, "because the adhesion between the pan and the nonstick coating is better," says Honigfort. Still, if pans do chip or flake, they may be more likely to click here release click here toxic compounds, says Kannan of the New York State click here Department of Health. weight vast To prevent scratching, use wooden spoons to stir food, avoid steel wool, for fitness and don't stack these pans. click here (If you do, put a paper towel liner between them.)

How long can click here you expect your click here nonstick cookware to last? click here DuPont's estimate, based on moderate usage, click here is three to five years. click here Some experts, like Kannan, click here advise replacing click here your nonstick cookware click here every couple of years. click here What should you do if the pan does become damaged? click here A clear answer, from Kannan: click here Throw it out.

Salman 迴響於 2017-12-24 22:40 回覆

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