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五大基本句型 ※所謂句子是指能表達完整思想的字群。為了能完整表達意思,句子中除了主詞與動詞這些主要元素外,還要看句子中所用的動詞性質,加上受詞或補語,以便能將意思表達清楚。一般而言,按照句中述語動詞性質,句子大致可分為五種基本句型。所有英文句子皆由此五種基本句型發展而來的。 ※ S:主詞, V:動詞, C:補語, O:受詞, SC:主詞補語, OC:受詞補語 第一種句型: S + V ※ 此類句型中的動詞為完全不及物動詞,後面不需接 O. (受詞),即可表達完整意思。如:arrive(抵達) / bloom / come / cry / go / happen(發生) / rain / rise / run / sing / sit / sleep / smile…等。 例句: 1. A baby cried. 2. I swim. 3. Money talks. 4. Flowers bloom (開花). 5. She sings happily. (happily 修飾sings) 6. Most students laughed loudly(大聲地). (most 修飾students;loudly 修飾laughed) 7. The rain has stopped. 8. I run fast. (fast修飾 run) ※ 句中主詞及動詞均可有修飾語,如第5、6、8句。 第二種句型: S + V + SC ※ 此類動詞為be動詞或聯綴動詞,需要接主詞補語才能完整表達意思。 如:appear(出現) / become / feel / get / keep / look / seem(似乎) / smell(聞起來) / sound / taste(嚐起來)…等。 ※ 主詞補語用來補充說明主詞的情形。常為名詞(例1)、形容詞(例2、3、4、5、6)、動名詞(例7)或、名詞子句(例8)、代名詞(例9) 、不定詞(例10) 例句: 1. I am a student. 2. He is shy. 3. Peter looked happy last night. 4. The flowers smell sweet. 5. She looks sad. 6. The medicine(葯) tastes bitter(苦). 7. Seeing is believing(相信). 8. He is what he used to be. 9. The pen is mine. 10. He seems to know the answer. 第三種句型: S + V + O ※ 動詞為完全及物動詞,也就是需有受詞來接受其動作者。 例如:bring(攜帶) / buy / carry / cook / do / eat / enjoy / hate / hear / know / love / make / sell / speak / wash …等。 受詞是指用以承受動詞之動作者。一般為名詞(例1、2、3)、動名詞(例4)、不定詞(例5)、名詞片語(例6、7)或名詞子句(例8、9)。 例句: 1. He wrote a letter. 2. She closed the door quietly(安靜地). (quietly修飾closely) 3. I open the box. 4. Tony enjoys reading the novel. 5. We wanted to buy a house. 6. I don’t know how to swim. 7. He doesn’t know where to find his dog. 8 The boys didn’t understand (了解) what she said. 9. I know that you have been working hard. 第四種句型: S + V + IO + DO IO:間接受詞 DO:直接受詞 ※ 此類動詞為授與動詞,後需接兩個受詞:直接受詞與間接受詞,才能完整表達意思。如: bring / give / lend / offer(提供) / pay / send / show / teach / tell / write…等。間接受詞多指人。直接受詞除名詞(例1、2、3、4)外,亦可為不定詞(例5)名詞片語(例6)或名詞子句(例7、8)。 例句: 1. She teaches us English. 2. He sent me a card. 3. He asked me a favor(恩惠). 4. He gave me the book. 5. Dad told us not to play with fire. 6. She showed us how to make a cake. 7. She promised(承諾) us that she would go. 8. He told us that he would be there on time. 第五種句型: S + V + O + OC ※ 此類動詞如: believe / call / consider / feel / find / keep / leave / name / prove (證明) / think / watch…等為不完全及物動詞,除需接受詞外,還要加受詞補語,才能構成完整句子。受詞補語是用來補充說明受詞的情形。除常見的名詞(例1、2)、形容詞(例3、4、5)外,亦可為現在分詞(例6)、過去分詞(例7)或不定詞(例8)。 例句: 1. We elected(選舉) him President. 2. All of us thought Tony a liar(騙子). 3. He made her happy. 4. He painted (粉刷) the house pink. 5. We consider(認為) him honest. 6. He kept me waiting for hours. 7. John had his flat tire(爆胎) changed. 8. He warned(警告) us not to be late. ※ 句型一般順序為: S. + V. + (O.) + 地點 + 方式 + 時間 ※ 方式指: 1. with whom 2. how 3. how long 4. how much 5. by what means…… 被動語態 --- S. + beV + p.p. + by + O. Part I --- 被動的基本句型 1. 句子的主詞是做動作者時,此句子則為「主動」。 反之,若主詞不是做動作者,而是接受動作者,此句子則為「被動」。 Eg: He sees me. 主動:他看見我了。 I am sseen by him. 被動:我被他看見了。 2. 主動態句子改為被動態時,句子的基本結構變化如下: 主動句:主詞A 動詞V 受詞B 被動句:受詞B be動詞+過去分詞 by+主詞A Eg:John picks up that ball. => Eg:Jack teaches the class. => 3. 主動式句子中,動詞必須是及物動詞,才會有受詞,才會有被動語態。 反之,若句中動詞為不及物動詞 (eg: happen, walk…),則不能改為被動,也不會有被動語態。 此外,有些動詞也沒有被動:have (有), cost(花費), meet(遇見) Part II --- 各種時式的被動句型 1. 現在式 => 主動:主詞A + 動詞V + 受詞B 被動:受詞B + beV + p.p. + by + 主詞A Eg:She sees me. _________________________________ I am seen by her. 2. 過去式 => 主動:主詞A + 動詞V + 受詞B 被動:受詞B + beV + p.p. + by + 主詞A Eg:We heard him. _________________________________ He was heard by us. 3. 未來式1 => 主動:主詞A + will + 原形V + 受詞B 被動:受詞B + will + be + p.p. + by + 主詞A Eg:I will grow oranges. _________________________________ Orange will be grown by me. 4. 未來式2 => 主動:主詞A + be going to + 原形V + 受詞B 被動:受詞B + be going to + be + p.p. + by + 主詞A Eg:They are going to buy it. _________________________________ It is going to be bought by them. 5. 現在進行式 => 主動:主詞A + beV + V-ing + 受詞B 被動:受詞B + beV + being + p.p. + by + 主詞A Eg:Tom is teaching the boy. _________________________________ The boy is being taught by Tom. 6. 現在完成式 => 主動:主詞A + have + p.p. + 受詞B 被動:受詞B + have + been + p.p. + by + 主詞A Eg:I have finished a letter. _________________________________ A letter has been finished by me. Part III --- 特殊句子的被動態 1. Do ( Does, Did) 起首的問句句型: 主動:Do + 主詞A + 原形V + 受詞B 被動:beV + 受詞B + p.p. + by + 主詞A Eg:Do you make the sweaters? => Are the sweaters made by you? Eg:Do people in England speak English? => ________________________________________ Is English spoken by people in England? 2. 含助動詞can, should, would, could的句型: 主動:主詞A + 助V + 原形V + 受詞B 被動:受詞B + 助V + be + p.p. + by + 主詞A Eg:You can watch it on TV. => It can be watched by you on TV. Eg:They should take the medicine. => ________________________________________ The medicine should be taken by them. 3. 含感官或使役動詞的句型: 主動:主詞A + 感官(使役)V + 受詞B + 原形V 被動:受詞B + be + 感官(使役) p.p. + to + 原形V + by + 主詞A ※最重要的地方,在於『要把 原形V 改回 to + 原形V』 Eg:I heard him sing an English song. => He was heard to sing an English song by me. Eg:She made Tom clean the desk. => ________________________________________ Tom was made to clean the desk by her. 4. Who 起首的問句句型: 主動: Who + 動詞V + 受詞B ? 被動: By whom + beV + 受詞B + p.p. ? Eg:Who mailed the letters? => By whom were the letters mailed? Eg:Who opened the window? => ________________________________________ By whom was the window opened? Part IV --- “ by + 人 ” 可以省略嗎? 1. “by +人”是要表明做動作的人是誰,如不需要或不想說明的話,就可省略之。 Eg:The song was sung by Jay. --- 明確表示唱此歌的人 Taiwan is also called “Formosa” (by people). --- 不想說明稱呼的主詞是誰 2. 下列情況,常把 “by + 人”省略: (1) 若表示『(眾所皆知的)一般人』時,如them, us, people …等 Eg:Rice is grown (by people) in Taiwan. (2) 若表示『(含糊不清的)某個人』時,如someone … 等 Eg:My book was taken away (by someone). ※形詞不能修飾被動態,要用副詞。 Eg:________________________________________ 票不容易買到。 ※受詞若為反身代名詞或each other時,不能作為被動句的主詞。 --- 反身代名詞或each other不能當主詞。 * 小試身手: 以下這篇簡短文章黑體印刷部份中,剛好具備五種基本句型,同學可試著分析看看。句子稍做分析,意思就更明朗,也較不易會錯意。答案一併附在解答中。 My Mother My mother is a great person. She works hard day and night. She keeps the house clean. She cooks, and washes our clothes. Besides all that, my mother is a good friend. She tells me stories. And, she listens to my problems. More than anything, she makes my world a better place. 改編自50 Words Reading Practice (Andrew E. Bennett) *小試身手解答: 第一種句型:She works hard day and night. ( hard 及day and night為修飾部分) S V 第二種句型:My mother is a great person. S V SC My mother is a good friend. S V SC 第三種句型:She listens to my problems. S V O 第四種句型:She tells me stories. S V IO DO 第五種句型:She keeps the house clean. S V O OC She makes my world a better place. S V O OC 英文時態總表 現在簡單式:I do my homework. 現在進行式:I am doing my homework. 現在完成式:I have done my homework. 現在完成進行式:I have been doing my homework. 過去式 過去簡單式:I did my homework. 過去進行式:I was doing my homework. 過去完成式:I had done my homework. 未來式 未來簡單式:I will do my homework. 未來進行式:I will be doing my homework. 未來完成式:I will have done my homework. (一) 現 在 簡 單 式 句型公式 肯定詞: 主詞 + { 否定句: 主詞 + { Be 動詞 + 主詞 疑問句:{ 1. 與現在有關的事實或狀態 I am an English teacher, and you are students. 我是一位英文老師,而你們是學生。 2.習慣(habit)或經常反覆的動作(常與頻率副詞連用)。 He does exercise every morning. 他每天早上做運動。 3.不變的真理 The earth (第三人稱單數) goes round the sun. 地球繞著太陽轉 (二) 現 在 進 行 式 句型公式 肯定句: 主詞 + be動詞 (is/am/are)+動詞現在分詞 (V-ing) 否定句: 主詞 + be動詞 + not +動詞現在分詞 (V-ing) 疑問句: be動詞 + 主詞 +動詞 (V-ing) 1.現在正在進行(發生)的動作;常與now/right now /at present/look/listen…等連用 I am writing an English letter now. 我正在寫一封英文信。 2. 計畫性的未來動作,常接this week/today/tomorrow/soon… Uncle Sam is visiting us this week. 山姆叔叔這禮拜要來看我們。 (三) 現 在 完 成 式 句型公式 肯定句: 主詞 + have/has + 動詞過去分詞(V+ p.p) 否定句: 主詞 + have/has + not + 動詞過去分詞(V+ p.p) 疑問句: Have/Has + 主詞 + 動詞過去分詞(V+ p.p) 1.已經(already)完成,尚未(yet)完成,剛剛(just)完成的動作 I have already mailed the letter 我已經把信寄出去了。 I have’t done my homework yet. 我尚未寫完這作業。 2.從過去到目前為止的人生經驗。 Have you (ever) seen that movie before? 你曾經看過那場電影嗎? 3.從過去一直「持續」到現在的動作或行為 I have learned English for 10 years. 我學英文學了十年。 I’ve learned English since I was an elementary school student. 我從我是小學生時就學英文到現在。 For , since For + 一段時間 Since { (四) 現在完成進行式:用來強調過去持續到現在,且仍在進行中的動作 1.句型公式:主詞 + have/ has+been+動詞現在分詞(V-ing) 1.We have been waiting for the bus for half an hour. 我們已經等了半個小時的公車了。(還在等) (五) 過 去 簡 單 式 句型公式 主詞 + V (過去式) 1.與過去有關的事實、動作。 I was a student 2 year ago , but now I am an English teacher. 我兩年前是一位學生,但現在我是一位英文老師。 I went to a movie last night. 我昨晚看了一場電影。 2.過去的習慣。 I usually went to the movies once a week when I was a student. =I used to go to movies once a week when I was a student. ※ usually + 過去式動詞 = used to + 原形動詞 (六) 過 去 進 行 式 句型公式 肯定句:主詞 + be動詞(was/were)(過去式) + 動詞現在分詞(V-ing) 否定句:主詞 + be動詞(was/were) + not +動詞現在分詞(V-ing) 疑問句:be動詞(was/were) + 主詞 + 動詞現在分詞(V-ing) 1.過去特定時間(強調某個時間點)正發生的動作。 I was watching TV at 7:00 last night. 過去進行式 ※ A. 過去的兩個動作中,一動作正在進行,另一動作為過去簡單式,則兩句以when連接。 I was writing an English letter when my mother came home last night. 當母親昨晚回來時,我正在寫一封英文信 B. 過去兩個動作同時正在進行時,則兩句以while連接 I was studying English while my mother was cooking yesterday. (七) 過去完成式:用來表示過去發生的兩個動作中先完成的動作。 句型公式 肯定句:主詞 + had +動詞過去分詞(V+p.p.) 否定句:主詞 + had + not + 動詞過去分詞(V+p.p) 疑問句:Had + 主詞+ 動詞過去分詞 1.過去完成式經常是與過去簡單式配合使用,以簡單式作為一個過去時間的參考,而完成式是指在這個參考時間前發生的動作。 The train had left by the time we got to the station. 我們到車站時,火車已經走了 (八)  未 來 簡 單 式 句型公式 肯定句: 主詞 + { 否定句: 主詞 + { 疑問句: { 1.與未來有關的事實或意願。 According to the weather report , we will have heavy rain tonight. 根據氣象報告,今晚會下大雨。 2.表示預定的計畫。 I am going to see a movie this Friday. 本五我將要去看一場電影。 (九) 未 來 進 行 式句型公式肯定句: 主詞 + will be + 動詞現在分詞(V-ing) 否定句: 主詞 + will + not + be + 動詞現在分詞(V-ing) 疑問句: will + 主詞 + be + 動詞現在分詞(V-ing) 1.未來特定時間(強調某個時間點)正發生的動作 I will be watching TV at 7:00 tomorrow 未來進行式 ※ 未來的兩個動作中,一動作用現在式,另一動作用未來進行式。 I will be writing an English letter when my mother comes home at 7:00 tomorrow evening. 當母親明晚七點回來時,我將正在寫一封英文信。 (十) 未 來 完 成 式 句型公式 肯定句: 主詞 + will /shall / + have + 動詞過去分詞(Vp.p) 否定句: 主詞 + will/ shall + have not + 動詞過去分詞(Vp.p) 疑問句: will + 主詞 + have + 動詞過去分詞(Vp.p) 1.用來表示在將來某一時間之前將會發生的動作. She will have finished her 2nd book by next January. 明年一月之前,她將已經完成她的第二本書。 時態綜合練習 一、選擇題 1.( ) Larry usually drives to work, but today he (A)walks (B)walking (C)has walked (D)walked. 2.( ) As soon as the light turned red , Maurice his car. (A)stops (B)stopping (C)stopped (D) was stopping 3.( ) Sorry, I when you talked. What did you say? (A)am not listening (B) wasn’t listening (C) hadn’t listened (D)haven’t listened 4.( ) I will call you when I _____ home. (A)arriving (B)will arrive (C) has arrived (D)arrive 5.( ) Even though they live in the same building , they’ve never _______ (A) meet (B)meeting (C)met (D)meted 6.( ) When I walked out of my office building , it ______ (A)was raining (B)rained (C) rains (D)had rained 7.( ) Maggie _________a lot , but not any more. (A)is used to work (B)use to work (C)used to work (D) was used to work 8.( ) While I ______ window shopping, I ran into an old friend of mine . (A)did (B)was doing (C)had done (D)is doing 9.( ) How many times _______ to London? (A)did you been (B)have you been (C)did you go (D)did you went 10.( )How long ________TV before you went to bed last night ? (A)had you watched (B)have you been watching (C)will be watching (D)have you watched 二、利用括弧中提供的動詞,寫出正確的時態,完成下列句子 1.__________He _________(study)English since he was in high school. 2.__________Will you _________(listen)to the radio at 9 p.m. tomorrow? 3.__________He__________(not-come)to school last week because he was sick. 4.__________So far, I_________(read) two of Shakespearen plays. 5.__________I was writing an English letter when my mother _________(come)home last night. 6.__________The sun________(rise)at 7:00 this morning. 時態解答: 一、 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 D C B D C A C B B A 二、 1. has studied (has been studying) 2. be listening 3. didn’t come 4. have read 5. came 6. rose

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