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被動語態  ---  S.  + beV + p.p.  + by  + O.

Part I --- 被動的基本句型

1. 句子的主詞是做動作者時,此句子則為「主動」。

反之,若主詞不是做動作者,而是接受動作者,此句子則為「被動」。

Eg He sees me.         主動:他看見我了。

     I am sseen by him.    被動:我他看見了。

2. 主動態句子改為被動態時,句子的基本結構變化如下:

   主動句:主詞A      動詞V        受詞B             

 

   被動句:受詞B  be動詞+過去分詞  by+主詞A

   EgJohn picks up that ball.

    =>

   EgJack teaches the class.

    =>

3. 主動式句子中,動詞必須是及物動詞,才會有受詞,才會有被動語態。

反之,若句中動詞為不及物動詞 (eg: happen, walk…),則不能改為被動,也不會有被動語態。

   此外,有些動詞也沒有被動:have (), cost(花費), meet(遇見)

Part II --- 各種時式的被動句型

1. 現在式 => 主動:主詞A + 動詞V + 受詞B

             被動:受詞B + beV + p.p. + by + 主詞A

             EgShe sees me.

                 _________________________________   I am seen by her.

2. 過去式 => 主動:主詞A + 動詞V + 受詞B

             被動:受詞B + beV + p.p. + by + 主詞A

             EgWe heard him.

                 _________________________________   He was heard by us.

3. 未來式1 => 主動:主詞A + will + 原形V + 受詞B

              被動:受詞B + will + be + p.p. + by + 主詞A

              EgI will grow oranges.

                  _________________________________   Orange will be grown by me.

4. 未來式2 => 主動:主詞A + be going to + 原形V + 受詞B

              被動:受詞B + be going to + be + p.p. + by + 主詞A

              EgThey are going to buy it.

                  _________________________________   It is going to be bought by them.

5. 現在進行式 => 主動:主詞A + beV + V-ing + 受詞B

                 被動:受詞B + beV + being + p.p. + by + 主詞A

                 EgTom is teaching the boy.

                  _________________________________   The boy is being taught by Tom.

6. 現在完成式 => 主動:主詞A + have + p.p. + 受詞B

                 被動:受詞B + have + been + p.p. + by + 主詞A

                 EgI have finished a letter.

                     _________________________________   A letter has been finished by me.

 

Part III --- 特殊句子的被動態

1. Do ( Does, Did) 起首的問句句型:

  主動:Do    + 主詞A + 原形V   + 受詞B

  被動:beV   + 受詞B +  p.p. + by  + 主詞A

  EgDo you make the sweaters?

   => Are the sweaters made by you?

  EgDo people in England speak English?

   => ________________________________________   Is English spoken by people in England?

2. 助動詞can, should, would, could的句型:

  主動:主詞A + V + 原形V      + 受詞B

  被動:受詞B + V + be + p.p. + by  + 主詞A

  EgYou can watch it on TV.

   => It can be watched by you on TV.

  EgThey should take the medicine.

   => ________________________________________   The medicine should be taken by them.

3. 感官或使役動詞的句型:

  主動:主詞A + 感官(使役)V + 受詞B + 原形V

  被動:受詞B + be + 感官(使役) p.p. + to + 原形V + by + 主詞A

        ※最重要的地方,在於『要把 原形V 改回 to + 原形V

  EgI heard him sing an English song.

   => He was heard to sing an English song by me.

  EgShe made Tom clean the desk.

   => ________________________________________   Tom was made to clean the desk by her.

4. Who 起首的問句句型:

  主動: Who    + 動詞V + 受詞B ?

  被動: By whom + beV   + 受詞B + p.p. ?

  EgWho mailed the letters?

   => By whom were the letters mailed?

  EgWho opened the window?

   => ________________________________________   By whom was the window opened?

 

Part IV ---  “ by + 可以省略嗎?

1. “by +是要表明做動作的人是誰,如不需要或不想說明的話,就可省略之。

  EgThe song was sung by Jay.                 ---  明確表示唱此歌的人

      Taiwan is also called “Formosa” (by people).   ---  不想說明稱呼的主詞是誰

2. 下列情況,常把 “by + 省略:

  (1) 若表示『(眾所皆知的)一般人』時,如them, us, people …等

  EgRice is grown (by people) in Taiwan.

  (2) 若表示『(含糊不清的)某個人』時,如someone

  EgMy book was taken away (by someone).

 

※形詞不能修飾被動態,要用副詞

  Eg________________________________________   票不容易買到。

※受詞若為反身代名詞each other時,不能作為被動句的主詞。 --- 反身代名詞或each other不能當主詞。




 
 
 
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